Commit caecd7f1 authored by Rieks Joosten's avatar Rieks Joosten
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Merge branch 'terminology-rieks' into 'master'

Updates on governance (minor work on terminologies)

See merge request !36
parents ac637853 efe033df
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......@@ -263,7 +263,7 @@ In order to make the %%holder|holder%% component work, a %%holder policy|holder-
The purpose of the %%data discloser|data-discloser%% component is to state the (various, sometimes intermediary) results of %%transactions|transaction%%, by collecting data from the Business Data Stores, and creating a set of (related) %%statements/claims|assertion%% that can subsequently be issued to other %%parties|party%%. A special kind of result is the (provisioning of) a %%credential|credential%% that its %%principal|principal%% already has created.
Typically, and at any point in time, %%parties|party%% are capable of expressing %%statements|assertion%% about %%entities|entity%% that they know to exist. They could express %%statements|assertion%% about individuals, about themselves, the state of %%transactions|transaction%%, and so on. We will use the term '**%subject% (of a %%statement|assertion%% of a %%party|party%%)**' to refer to the %%entity|entity%% that this %%party|party%% knows to exist, and about whom/which the %%statement|assertion%% has been made.
Typically, and at any point in time, %%parties|party%% are capable of expressing %%statements|assertion%% about %%entities|entity%% that they know to exist. They could express %%statements|assertion%% about individuals, about themselves, the state of %%transactions|transaction%%, and so on. We will use the term '**%%subject|subject%%% (of a %%statement|assertion%% of a %%party|party%%)**' to refer to the %%entity|entity%% that this %%party|party%% knows to exist, and about whom/which the %%statement|assertion%% has been made.
We will use the term '**subject-id (of a %%statement|assertion%% of a %%party|party%%)**' to refer to the representation that this %%party|party%% has chosen to use for referring to the %%subject|subject%% in said %%statement|assertion%%. A subject-id must have the property of being an %%identifier|identifier%% within every administrative context that this %%party|party%% uses. It need not be humanly interpretable (and preferably is not).
......@@ -405,7 +405,7 @@ Conversely, the citizen might request the (alleged) municipality to provide %%cr
### 5.3. Stating Transactions - Issuing Credentials
In the eSSIF-Lab context, we take '%%credential|credential%%' to mean any (set of coherent) %%statement(s)|assertion%% about any (one or more) %subject%(s) that a single %%party|party%% has issued with proof of provenance (i.e. anyone else can determine the identity of that %%issuer|issuer%%) and a proof of integrity (i.e. anyone can determine whether or not the content of the %%credential|credential%% has been changed/tampered with since it was issued). From this, it follows that any %%party|party%% can issue any kind of %%credential|credential%% for any %%entity|entity%% that it knows to exist. A %%credential|credential%% does not need to be about a person or an %%organization|organization%%, but it can also refer to an order, a delivery, a seat-reservation, a prescription, etc.
In the eSSIF-Lab context, we take '%%credential|credential%%' to mean any (set of coherent) %%statement(s)|assertion%% about any (one or more) %%subject|subject%%(s) that a single %%party|party%% has issued with proof of provenance (i.e. anyone else can determine the identity of that %%issuer|issuer%%) and a proof of integrity (i.e. anyone can determine whether or not the content of the %%credential|credential%% has been changed/tampered with since it was issued). From this, it follows that any %%party|party%% can issue any kind of %%credential|credential%% for any %%entity|entity%% that it knows to exist. A %%credential|credential%% does not need to be about a person or an %%organization|organization%%, but it can also refer to an order, a delivery, a seat-reservation, a prescription, etc.
We foresee two ways in which %%credentials|credential%% can be issued:
......
......@@ -224,7 +224,7 @@ In order to make the %%holder|holder%% component work, a %%holder policy|holder-
The purpose of the %%data discloser|data-discloser%% component is to state the (various, sometimes intermediary) results of %%transactions|transaction%%, by collecting data from the Business Data Stores, and creating a set of (related) %%statements/claims|assertion%% that can subsequently be issued to other %%parties|party%%. A special kind of result is the (provisioning of) a %%credential|credential%% that its %%principal|principal%% already has created.
Typically, and at any point in time, %%parties|party%% are capable of expressing %%statements|assertion%% about %%entities|entity%% that they know to exist. They could express %%statements|assertion%% about individuals, about themselves, the state of %%transactions|transaction%%, and so on. We will use the term '**%subject% (of a %%statement|assertion%% of a %%party|party%%)**' to refer to the %%entity|entity%% that this %%party|party%% knows to exist, and about whom/which the %%statement|assertion%% has been made.
Typically, and at any point in time, %%parties|party%% are capable of expressing %%statements|assertion%% about %%entities|entity%% that they know to exist. They could express %%statements|assertion%% about individuals, about themselves, the state of %%transactions|transaction%%, and so on. We will use the term '**%%subject|subject%% (of a %%statement|assertion%% of a %%party|party%%)**' to refer to the %%entity|entity%% that this %%party|party%% knows to exist, and about whom/which the %%statement|assertion%% has been made.
We will use the term '**subject-id (of a %%statement|assertion%% of a %%party|party%%)**' to refer to the representation that this %%party|party%% has chosen to use for referring to the %%subject|subject%% in said %%statement|assertion%%. A subject-id must have the property of being an %%identifier|identifier%% within every administrative context that this %%party|party%% uses. It need not be humanly interpretable (and preferably is not).
......@@ -366,7 +366,7 @@ Conversely, the citizen might request the (alleged) municipality to provide %%cr
### 5.3. Stating Transactions - Issuing Credentials
In the eSSIF-Lab context, we take '%%credential|credential%%' to mean any (set of coherent) %%statement(s)|assertion%% about any (one or more) %subject%(s) that a single %%party|party%% has issued with proof of provenance (i.e. anyone else can determine the identity of that %%issuer|issuer%%) and a proof of integrity (i.e. anyone can determine whether or not the content of the %%credential|credential%% has been changed/tampered with since it was issued). From this, it follows that any %%party|party%% can issue any kind of %%credential|credential%% for any %%entity|entity%% that it knows to exist. A %%credential|credential%% does not need to be about a person or an %%organization|organization%%, but it can also refer to an order, a delivery, a seat-reservation, a prescription, etc.
In the eSSIF-Lab context, we take '%%credential|credential%%' to mean any (set of coherent) %%statement(s)|assertion%% about any (one or more) %%subject|subject%%(s) that a single %%party|party%% has issued with proof of provenance (i.e. anyone else can determine the identity of that %%issuer|issuer%%) and a proof of integrity (i.e. anyone can determine whether or not the content of the %%credential|credential%% has been changed/tampered with since it was issued). From this, it follows that any %%party|party%% can issue any kind of %%credential|credential%% for any %%entity|entity%% that it knows to exist. A %%credential|credential%% does not need to be about a person or an %%organization|organization%%, but it can also refer to an order, a delivery, a seat-reservation, a prescription, etc.
We foresee two ways in which %%credentials|credential%% can be issued:
......
......@@ -261,7 +261,7 @@ In order to make the %%holder|holder%% component work, a %%holder policy|holder-
The purpose of the %%data discloser|data-discloser%% component is to state the (various, sometimes intermediary) results of %%transactions|transaction%%, by collecting data from the Business Data Stores, and creating a set of (related) %%statements/claims|assertion%% that can subsequently be issued to other %%parties|party%%. A special kind of result is the (provisioning of) a %%credential|credential%% that its %%principal|principal%% already has created.
Typically, and at any point in time, %%parties|party%% are capable of expressing %%statements|assertion%% about %%entities|entity%% that they know to exist. They could express %%statements|assertion%% about individuals, about themselves, the state of %%transactions|transaction%%, and so on. We will use the term '**%subject% (of a %%statement|assertion%% of a %%party|party%%)**' to refer to the %%entity|entity%% that this %%party|party%% knows to exist, and about whom/which the %%statement|assertion%% has been made.
Typically, and at any point in time, %%parties|party%% are capable of expressing %%statements|assertion%% about %%entities|entity%% that they know to exist. They could express %%statements|assertion%% about individuals, about themselves, the state of %%transactions|transaction%%, and so on. We will use the term '**%%subject|subject%% (of a %%statement|assertion%% of a %%party|party%%)**' to refer to the %%entity|entity%% that this %%party|party%% knows to exist, and about whom/which the %%statement|assertion%% has been made.
We will use the term '**subject-id (of a %%statement|assertion%% of a %%party|party%%)**' to refer to the representation that this %%party|party%% has chosen to use for referring to the %%subject|subject%% in said %%statement|assertion%%. A subject-id must have the property of being an %%identifier|identifier%% within every administrative context that this %%party|party%% uses. It need not be humanly interpretable (and preferably is not).
......@@ -403,7 +403,7 @@ Conversely, the citizen might request the (alleged) municipality to provide %%cr
### 5.3. Stating Transactions - Issuing Credentials
In the eSSIF-Lab context, we take '%%credential|credential%%' to mean any (set of coherent) %%statement(s)|assertion%% about any (one or more) %subject%(s) that a single %%party|party%% has issued with proof of provenance (i.e. anyone else can determine the identity of that %%issuer|issuer%%) and a proof of integrity (i.e. anyone can determine whether or not the content of the %%credential|credential%% has been changed/tampered with since it was issued). From this, it follows that any %%party|party%% can issue any kind of %%credential|credential%% for any %%entity|entity%% that it knows to exist. A %%credential|credential%% does not need to be about a person or an %%organization|organization%%, but it can also refer to an order, a delivery, a seat-reservation, a prescription, etc.
In the eSSIF-Lab context, we take '%%credential|credential%%' to mean any (set of coherent) %%statement(s)|assertion%% about any (one or more) %%subject|subject%%(s) that a single %%party|party%% has issued with proof of provenance (i.e. anyone else can determine the identity of that %%issuer|issuer%%) and a proof of integrity (i.e. anyone can determine whether or not the content of the %%credential|credential%% has been changed/tampered with since it was issued). From this, it follows that any %%party|party%% can issue any kind of %%credential|credential%% for any %%entity|entity%% that it knows to exist. A %%credential|credential%% does not need to be about a person or an %%organization|organization%%, but it can also refer to an order, a delivery, a seat-reservation, a prescription, etc.
We foresee two ways in which %%credentials|credential%% can be issued:
......
......@@ -38,8 +38,8 @@ The [eSSIF-Lab Identity Pattern](./terms/pattern-identity)
- shows that it is comprised of %%partial identities|partial-identity%% that are the actual artifacts we need to focus on in %%SSI contexts|self-sovereign-identity%%, and
- shows how this relates to (attributes in) %%credentials|credential%%.
### [Managing and Governing](./terms/pattern-governance-and-management)
The envisaged [Managing and Governing Pattern](./terms/pattern-governance-and-management) will explain how %%parties|party%% organize that %%their|owner%% %%objectives|objective%% are realized, either by doing the associated work themselves, or by arranging for other %%parties|party%% to do that. The contribution of this pattern is to show how this is done, based on the idea that every %%objective|objective%% has a single %%party|party%% that %%owns|owner%% the %%objective|objective%%.
### [Governance and Management](./terms/pattern-governance-and-management)
The envisaged [Governance and Management Pattern](./terms/pattern-governance-and-management) will explain how %%parties|party%% organize that %%their|owner%% %%objectives|objective%% are realized, either by doing the associated work themselves, or by arranging for other %%parties|party%% to do that. The contribution of this pattern is to show how this is done, based on the idea that every %%objective|objective%% has a single %%party|party%% that %%owns|owner%% the %%objective|objective%%.
## Envisaged Models
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......@@ -7,5 +7,5 @@ date: 20210601
:::info Editor's note
TNO to write the introduction paragraph
Remainder of file to be generated (GRNET plugin/extension)
Remainder of file to be generated (by some appropriate tool)
:::
......@@ -11,7 +11,9 @@ date: 20210601
---
### Short Description
A Community is an %%organization|organization%% that seeks to facilitate the cooperation between at least two %%parties|party%% (referred to as its 'members') based on interests that these %%parties|party%% share as each of them seeks to realize its own, individual %%objectives|objective%%.
A Community is an %%organization|organization%% that seeks to facilitate the cooperation between at least two %%parties|party%% (referred to as its 'members') based on interests that these %%parties|party%% share as each of them seeks to realize its own, individual %%objectives|objective%%. Facilitating such a cooperation can be expressed in terms of %%objectives|objective%% that each of its members contributes to realizing.
Note that a single set of %%parties|party%% can seek different cooperations with one another, with different associated sets of %%objectives|objective%%. They are then different %%communities|community%% (even though they have the same members), because it is conceivable that another %%party|party%% will join one, but not both of them, or one member will leave one, but not both %%communities|community%%.
A community is a specialization of the more generic %%ecosystem|ecosystem%% in the sense that it is an %%organization|organization%% (which an ecosystem need not be) that (actively) facilitates the cooperation between its members, whereas in non-community ecosystems, this cooperation is not actively organized.
......
......@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@ The purpose of the Data Discloser component is to state the (various, sometimes
A **Data Discloser** is a component in the [eSSIF-Lab functional architecture](../essifLab-fw-func-arch) that is capable of stating (various, sometimes intermediary) results of transactions, by collecting data from the Business Data Stores, and creating a set of (related) statements/claims that can subsequently be issued to other %%Parties|party%%.
### Functionality
Typically, and at any point in time, Parties are capable of expressing statements about entities that they know to exist. They could express statements about individuals, about themselves, the state of transactions, and so on. We will use the term '**%subject% (of a statement of a Party)**' to refer to the entity that this Party knows to exist, and about whom/which the statement has been made.
Typically, and at any point in time, Parties are capable of expressing statements about entities that they know to exist. They could express statements about individuals, about themselves, the state of transactions, and so on. We will use the term '**%%subject|subject%% (of a statement of a Party)**' to refer to the entity that this Party knows to exist, and about whom/which the statement has been made.
We will use the term '**subject-id (of a statement of a Party)**' to refer to the representation that this Party has chosen to use for referring to the %%subject|subject%% in said statement. A subject-id must have the property of being an identifier within every administrative context that this Party uses. It need not be humanly interpretable (and preferably is not).
......
......@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ date: 20210830
Governance is about planning the budgets and other resources necsessary _to (obtain and to) actually use the results_. This includes the specification of timelines (deadlines) for the results to become available, as well as the properties and other characteristics (security, quality, sustainability, etc.) that results must have in order to make them effective ('fit for purpose' - fit to be used as intended by the consuming %%party|party%%). In order to keep tabs on the fitness of the results for the intended purposes, effectiveness indicators may be developed, i.e. gauges that measure how 'fit' the results are to be used/consumed for the intended purposes, are also part of this %%governance|governance%%.
The governance of a set of %%objectives|objective%% can be implemented as a %%control process|control-process% where each of these objectives serves as a control objective in that process.
The governance of a set of %%objectives|objective%% can be implemented as a %%control process|control-process%% where each of these objectives serves as a control objective in that process.
We make a clear distinction between governance and management, which is explained in the %%governance and management pattern|pattern-governance-and-management%%.
### Purpose
......
......@@ -19,4 +19,4 @@ We realize that this is a term that is heavily debated. However for our purposes
The [Self-Identity](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-concept) or [Self-concept](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-concept) of a %%party|party%% is the %%partial identity|partial-identity%% of which it is both the %%subject|subject%% and the %%owner|owner%%.
For further details, see the %%identity pattern|pattern-identity%%. Related topics can be found in the %%identification pattern|pattern-identification%% and the %identifier pattern%.
\ No newline at end of file
For further details, see the %%identity pattern|pattern-identity%%. Related topics can be found in the %%identification pattern|pattern-identification%% and the %%identifier pattern|pattern-identifier%%.
\ No newline at end of file
......@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ date: 20210830
Management is about planning and organizing the budgets and other resources so that they become (and/or remain) available _to produce the results_ of the associated %%objectives|objective%%. It includes the specification of timelines (deadlines) for the production, as well as the properties and other characteristics (security, quality, sustainability, etc.) of what is actually being produced/maintained. It also deals with making the tools and %%policies|policy%% (e.g. working instructions) available for doing all this.
In order to keep tabs on the efficiency of the management process, performance indicators may be developed, i.e. gauges that measure how well the resources are spent in this production/maintenancd work are also part of this.
The management of a set of %%objectives|objective%% can be implemented as a %%control process|control-process%. The control objectives that are needed by this control process would typically come from a %%policy|policy%% of the owner of the %%objectives|objective%% that are managed.
The management of a set of %%objectives|objective%% can be implemented as a %%control process|control-process%%. The control objectives that are needed by this control process would typically come from a %%policy|policy%% of the owner of the %%objectives|objective%% that are managed.
We make a clear distinction between governance and management, which is explained in the %%governance and management pattern|pattern-governance-and-management%%.
......
......@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@ The ability to distinguish between (non)objectives is relevant as objectives are
### Criterion
An **objective** is something
- that is %%owned|owned%% by a single %party;
- that is %%owned|owned%% by a single %%party|party%%;
- toward which its %%owner|owner%% directs its efforts: an aim, goal, or end of action - this action is related to the the owner producing the associated results (%%management|management%%) and/or consuming the results (%%governance|governance%%);
- that can be realized, and this realization can be seen in terms as the coming into existence of results (e.g. products, services, a situation or state (e.g. happiness));
- that may have a description (text, that represents and identifies the objective within the %%knowledge|knowledge%% of its %%owner|owner%%)
......
......@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ date: 20210803
---
### Short Description
A **Partial identity (of an %%entity|entity%%)** is all %%knowledge|knowledge%% that a specific %%party|party%% has about that %%entity|entity%%. This %%entity|entity%% is referred to as the *%subject%* of the partial identity. The %%party|party%% fulfills the role of %%owner|owner%% of the partial entity, as the partial identity is part of the %%knowledge|knowledge%% that this party owns (see the %%party-actor pattern|pattern-party-actor-action%% for details).
A **Partial identity (of an %%entity|entity%%)** is all %%knowledge|knowledge%% that a specific %%party|party%% has about that %%entity|entity%%. This %%entity|entity%% is referred to as the *%%subject|subject%%* of the partial identity. The %%party|party%% fulfills the role of %%owner|owner%% of the partial entity, as the partial identity is part of the %%knowledge|knowledge%% that this party owns (see the %%party-actor pattern|pattern-party-actor-action%% for details).
A %%party|party%% that has %%knowledge|knowledge%% about itself will thus have a %%partial identity|partial-identity%% that it is both the %%subject|subject%% and the %%owner|owner%% of. This is called the [Self-Identity](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-concept) or [Self-concept](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-concept) of that party.
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......@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ id: pattern-governance-and-management
title: "Governance and Management"
scopeid: essifLab
type: pattern
typeid: manage-and-govern
typeid: governance-and-management
stage: draft
hoverText: "The Governance and Management pattern explains how Parties organize that their Objectives are realized, either by doing the associated work themselves, or by arranging for other Parties to do that."
date: 20210830
......@@ -12,11 +12,11 @@ date: 20210830
import useBaseUrl from '@docusaurus/useBaseUrl'
### Purpose
The **Governance and Management pattern** captures the concepts and relations that explain how %%parties|party%% organize that %%their|owner%% %%objectives|objective%% are realized, either by doing the associated work themselves, or by arranging for other %%parties|party%% to do that. The contribution of this pattern is to show how this is done, based on the idea that every %%objective|objective%% has a single %%party|party%% that %%owns|owner%% the %%objective|objective%%.
The **Governance and Management pattern** captures the concepts and relations that explain how %%parties|party%% organize that %%their|owner%% %%objectives|objective%% are realized, either by doing the associated work themselves (%%management|management%%), or by arranging for other %%parties|party%% to do that. The contribution of this pattern is to show how this is done, based on the idea that every %%objective|objective%% has a single %%party|party%% that %%owns|owner%% the %%objective|objective%%.
### Introduction
Whether or not an %%objective|objective%% is realized can be seen by the status of the associated results, as is explained [there](objective). The following figure is a recap of the %%objective|objective%%-concept (using the usual [notations and conventions](../notations-and-conventions#pattern-diagram-notations)):
Whether or not an %%objective|objective%% is realized can be seen by the status of the associated results, as is explained %%there|objective%%. The following figure is a recap of the %%objective|objective%%-concept (using the usual [notations and conventions](../notations-and-conventions#pattern-diagram-notations)):
<img
alt="A Party's Objectives"
......@@ -25,33 +25,39 @@ Whether or not an %%objective|objective%% is realized can be seen by the status
*Figure 1. Parties and their %%objectives|objective%%.*
Note that there are two 'sides' to each objective (and their results):
The core property of this model is that every %%objective|objective%% has precisely one %%owner|owner%%, which is the %%party|party%% that pursues the realization of the assocated results, from one (or both) of the two following perspectives:
1. the _**production**_ side. Here, it is important that the budgets and other resources are planned, and made available _to produce the results_. This includes the specification of timelines (deadlines) for the production, as well as the properties and other characteristics (security, quality, sustainability, etc.) of what is actually being produced/maintained. It also deals with making the tools and %%policies|policy%% (e.g. working instructions) available for doing all this. We will use the term 'management' to refer to these %%activities|action%%, and the term '%%manager|management%%' to refer to the role of a %%party|party%% that performs such activities. Hence, developing performance indicators, i.e. gauges that measure how well the resources are spent in this production/maintenancd work are also part of this.
1. the _**production**_, _**supply**_, or _**%%management|management%%**_ perspective. This is the perspective in which the %%owner|owner%% of the %%objective|objective%% will itself be %%managing|management%% the creation (or maintenance) of the results associated with the %%objective|objective%%. This entails the creation of (product) specifictions and %%working instructions|policy%%, organizing that budgets and other production resources become available and are planned, and everything else to ensure the results will be ready to be provided to parties that will actually use them. This may include developing performance indicators, i.e. gauges that measure how well the resources are spent in this production/maintenance work, which may help managers to do their work. We will use the term '%%management|management%%' to refer to these %%activities|action%%, and the term '%%manager|management%%' to refer to the role of a %%party|party%% that performs such activities.
2. the _**consumption**_ side. Here, it is important that the budgets and other resources are planned, and made available _to (obtain and to) actually use the results_. This includes the specification of timelines (deadlines) for the results to become available, as well as the properties and other characteristics (security, quality, sustainability, etc.) that results must have in order to make them effective ('fit for purpose' - fit to be used as intended by the consuming %%party|party%%). We will use the term '%%governance|governance%%' to refer to these %%activities|action%%, and the term '%%governor|governance%%' to refer to the role of a %%party|party%% that performs such activities. Hence, developing effectiveness indicators, i.e. gauges that measure how 'fit' the results are to be used/consumed for the intended purposes, are also part of this %%governance|governance%%.
2. the _**consumption**_, _**demand**_, or _**%%governance|governance%%**_ perspective. This is the perspective in which the %%owner|owner%% of the %%objective|objective%% wants to actually use the results associated with the %%objective|objective%%. This entails specifying the kinds of results as well as criteria that such results must satisfy (or are nice to have satisfied) in order to be fit for the purpose(s) that the %%owner|owner%% wants to use them for. Such criteria may pertain to timelines (deadlines), security, quality, sustainability, etc. This may include developing 'effectiveness indicators', i.e. gauges that measure how 'fit' the results are to be used/consumed for the intended purposes, are also part of this %%governance|governance%%. We will use the term '%%governance|governance%%' to refer to these %%activities|action%%, and the term '%%governor|governance%%' to refer to the role of a %%party|party%% that performs such activities.
A %%party|party%% that %%owns|owner%% an %%objective|objective%% gets to decide whether he will do the production side, the consumption side, or both. The easiest is if the party chooses to do both, thus not only creating/maintaining specific results, but also actually using them. What makes this easy is that coordination between 'supply' (the production side) and 'demand' (the consumption side) is done within one %%knowledge|knowledge%%, i.e. the %%knowledge|knowledge%% of the %%party|party%% that %%owns|owner%% the %%objective|objective%%. Coordination between budgets, timelines, the characteristics of the results, etc., are much easier when all this gets to be decided by a single %%party|party%%.
### Governance and Management
### Managing and Governing
The following figure illustrates the situation where this is not the case (using the usual [notations and conventions](../notations-and-conventions#pattern-diagram-notations)):
When a %%party|party%% both %%manages|management%% and %%governs|governance%% an %%objective|objective%%, it is in full control of the production and the usability of the associated results. This is easy to do when compared to the situation in which a %%party|party%% either %%manages|management%% or %%governs|governance%% its %%objective|objective%%, but not both. This governance and management pattern focuses on the latter situation. The following figure illustrates this situation:
<img
alt="managing and governing"
alt="governance and management"
src={useBaseUrl('images/essif-lab-governance-and-management.png')}
/>
*Figure 1. Managing and governing objectives.*
*Figure 1. Governing and Managing objectives.*
The figure shows four %%parties|party%%, distinguished by color - let's call them Red, Yellow, Blue and Green. We assume that each party %%owns|owner%% multiple %%objectives|objective%%, but in the figure we only show a single one, each of which with a description that %%identifies|identify%% that %%objective|objective%% from the set of %%objectives|objective%% of each %%party|party%%. The figure also shows one of the results associated with each of these %%objectives|objective%%, again phrased such that the %%objective|objective%% %%owner|owner%% knows what this really %%means|semantics%%. So, Red %%governs|governance%% an %%objective|objective%% that it describes as "Get a transportation means for work-travel". The associated result "transportation means" then doesn't come as a surprise.
Red, who %%governs|governance%% its %%objective|objective%% can realize the result by 'scouring the market' to find a %%party|party%% that is capable and willing to provide things that Red qualifies as "transportation means" and that hence constitute the result it wants. Note that Yellow also needs to realize a result "transportation means", in order to realize her objective "Ability to move trash from A to B". Both Blue and Green produce results, i.e. a "car + lease contract" and a "sharing deal" respectively.
The essence of this figure is to show that %%parties|party%% that consume a result and %%parties|party%% that produce a result have a matching issue.
From the perspective of the consuming party, the result produced by a producing party must qualify as a result that it needs. %%Governing|governance%% an %%objective|objective%% is basically specifying a result in such a way that it is fit for purpose, i.e. realizes the objective, AND finding a result that is produced byt some %%party|party%% that qualifies as such, and that it can obtain. For Red (and Yellow) this means that they need to determine whether or not the results that Blue and Green produce qualify, and engage with either if that is the case. If not, they must either find other producers whose results do match, or they have to find an alternative result for realizing their objectives.
From the perspective of the producing party, producing a result is only meaningful if it is actually used. %%Managing|management%% an %%objective|objective%% is basically producing a result in such a way that there is (at least) one party that needs it. This is not only about producing things, but also about finding out what makes the produced result fit for the (various) purposes of (potential) consuming parties.
When a %%party|party%% decides to outsource the production side, he must then find another %%party|party%% to do that for him. We say that the %%objective|objective%%, the results of which are to be realized by that other party, is an 'expectation' of the first %%party|party%%. So an 'expectation' is an %%objective|objective%% that is %%owned|owned%% by a %%party|party%% that does not itself realizes the associated results. Assuming that every %%objective|objective%% is to be meaningful to its %%owner|owner%%, we conclude that this %%party|party%% is (one of) the consumer(s) of these results, and hence will %%govern|governance%% this/its %%objective|objective%%, but not manage it. This %%party|party%% may find it useful to communicate its needs (e.g. the timelines/deadlines, the characteristics that makes the results 'fit-for-purpose', etc.) to the %%party|party%% that it requests to produce these results, as this makes it easier for that party to do so.
### Matching
If such a %%party|party%% accepts the request (to realize some results), it will have created an %%objective|objective%% (that it %%owns|owner%% itself), that is associated with the results that it is going to produce, and the associated specification of timelines, characteristics etc. A %%party|party%% may also decide to realize some results without any explicit request - and even if it does not intend to use/consume them itself. We will refer to an %%objective|objective%%, the results of which are realized by its %%owner|owner%%, as an 'obligation' of that %%owner|owner%%.
Matching (of (the results of) %%objectives|objective%%) is the process in which a producer and consumer interact to establish whether or not a produced result (of the producing party) qualifies as a consumeable result (of the consuming party).
The main contribution of this pattern lies in
- the observation that in any case where the consumer/user of a result (product/service) and the producer/maintainer thereof are different %%parties|party%%, each of them have their %%own|owner%% %%objective|objective%% that is associated with a result (specification), and
- the consequence thereof that, since such %%objectives|objective%% are part of a different %%knowledge|knowledge%%, one must not assume that they are the same.
This matching process can take many different forms. One is that a producing party advertises the kinds of results it produces in an attempt to attract consuming parties that qualify them as something they can use/consume. Another one is that a consuming party can tender for a result it needs, in an attempt to attract producing parties to produce such a result. And then there is the ad-hoc way, where two parties meet and find out by chance that one produces results that the other needs.
As a consequence, %%parties|party%% that %%govern|governance%% an %%objective|objective%% of theirs but do not manage it, should ensure that the results that the producer is realizing are in fact fit for purpose. Conversely, %%parties|party%% that manage an %%objective|objective%% of theirs but do not %%govern|governance%% it, should ensure they know which other %%parties|party%% will use the results, and what makes them fit for (their) purposes.
The matching process can be a one-off, which is the case e.g. when buying a product. However, it can also be a continous process, e.g., in the case where a service is purchased. In the latter case, matching may include monitoring the service levels that the service provider realizes to ensure the service still qualifies as a result that realizes the consumers' objective.
The processes for governing and/or managing of objectives can be controlled by deploying a suitable %%control process|control-process%%.
\ No newline at end of file
Matching is a process that can be readily observed in practice.
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......@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@ Here, we discuss %%identification|identify%% in a way that we expect to be usefu
First, identification of an %%entity|entity%% is similar to recognizing that %%entity|entity%%. A bit more formal: given an %%entity|entity%% (or digital or non-digital %%data|data%% about that %%entity|entity%% that comes from outside the %%knowledge|knowledge%% of a %%party|party%%), identification is determining whether or not the %%party|party%% %%owns|owner%% a %%partial identity|partial-identity%% of which that %%entity|entity%% is the %%subject|subject%%. When the entity isn't recognized (identified), then a %%partial identity|partial-identity%% may be created that has this %%entity|entity%% as its %%subject|subject%%.
Second, identification of an %%entity|entity%% is similar to pointing/singling out the %%entity|entity%%. More formal: given a %%partial identity|partial-identity%% that is %%owned|owned%% by a %%party|party%% and a specific context where a set of %%entities|entity%% are present, identification is determining whether or not the %%subject|subject%% of that partial identity% is in that set, and if so, which of them it is.
Second, identification of an %%entity|entity%% is similar to pointing/singling out the %%entity|entity%%. More formal: given a %%partial identity|partial-identity%% that is %%owned|owned%% by a %%party|party%% and a specific context where a set of %%entities|entity%% are present, identification is determining whether or not the %%subject|subject%% of that partial identity%% is in that set, and if so, which of them it is.
We will elaborate on both.
......
......@@ -11,8 +11,41 @@ date: 20210601
import useBaseUrl from '@docusaurus/useBaseUrl'
## Purpose
The idea here is to describe how terms are scoped ('namespaces' is the term used by SW-engineers), how parties govern such scopes/namespaces, and that if you use criteria to define/specify terms, people can test if they have the same understanding of a term by making sure that everyone reaches the same conclusions as they evaluate such criteria in various relevant use-cases.
The prime objective of working with a %%terminology|terminology%% is to enable individual members of a %%community|community%% to understand the words and phrases that are used by its members ***in the same, single meaning***. This is to say that ***the differences in the individual understandings of words or phrases by different members of the same %%community|community%% do not pose any problems as they collaborate to serve their shared interests***.
This suggests that (members of) a %%community|community%% need the ability and means to (a) establish and maintain (i.e.: %%own|owner%%) their own %%terminology|terminology%%, and (b) to ensure it is fit for the purpose of eliminating such misunderstandings. More concretely, they need the ability and means to create, maintain and improve the %%definitions|definition%% that link %%terms|term%% with the %%concepts|concept%%/meanings that they agree are relevant for their collaboration, and perhaps also to document the ways of thinking (%%mental models|pattern%%) that are crucial to their work.
Once a %%community|community%% has its %%terminology|terminology%% in place, may want to establish an associated %%glossary|glossary%% that serves as the authoritive reference for the (crucial) %%terms|term%% used by its members. This %%glossary|glossary%% is also a valuable reference document for a non-community member, as it helps him/her to (better) understand the (verbal or written) communications authored by that %%community|community%%, i.e. it helps to 'map', or 'translate' the terms of that %%community|community%% to words or phrases that the person uses itself, which is prerequisite for effectively engaging with that %%community|community%%.
The secondary objective of working with a %%terminology|terminology%% is to enable members of %%ecosystems|ecosystem%% to establish
- a set of %%terms|term%% that have a 'good definition' (as defined at the end of [this document](https://www.researchgate.net/publication/352560909_on_terminology_and_the_resolution_of_related_issues), which basically means that ***two arbitrary people that use that definition stand a very good chance of having the same individual understanding of what is meant***.
- a set of %%mental models|pattern%% that describe relations and constraints between sets of such terms, thus providing the bases for ***arbitrary sets of people to have the same understanding of specific ways of thinking about a set of concepts***.
Such %%terminologies|terminology%% and %%mental models|pattern%% differ from those created for/by %%communities|community%% in the sense that it is basically just a repository of words and phrases that %%communities|community%% may adopt within their own %%scopes|scope%%. They have no other authority than what they can derive from being used in/by %%communities|community%%.
The benefit of creating and maintaining such %%terminologies|terminology%% and %%mental models|pattern%% lies in the fact that they can be developed with less of a bias of developers than if they were developed in a %%community|community%% (that is there to serve its own interests). As such, they may play an important role as different %%communities|community%% seek to establish a languate for cooperating with one another.
### Introduction
This pattern has two basic parts:
1. the %%management|management%%-related part. This part consists of a %%community|community%% that %%owns|owner%% its particular set of %%objectives|objective%% which exist for establishing cooperation between its members, and for which it needs to establish and maintain a %%terminology|terminology%%.
2. the terminology-related part. This is where %%concepts|concept%%, %%definitions|definition%%, %%terms|term%%, %%glossaries|glossary%% etc. live. This part is what one needs to create tools/support for managing and maintaining a %%terminology|terminology%%.
### Formalized model
Here is a visual representation of this pattern, using the following [notations and conventions](../notations-and-conventions#pattern-diagram-notations):
<img
alt="Conceptual model of the 'Duties-and-rights' pattern"
src={useBaseUrl('images/patterns/pattern-duties-and-rights.png')}
/>
:::info Editor's note
This is work that is being envisaged.
TNO to provide further introductorty texts
:::
The idea here is to describe how terms are scoped ('namespaces' is the term used by SW-engineers), how parties govern such scopes/namespaces, and that if you use criteria to define/specify terms, people can test if they have the same understanding of a term by making sure that everyone reaches the same conclusions as they evaluate such criteria in various relevant use-cases.
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......@@ -18,4 +18,4 @@ Note that without this data set, the use of this term is meaningless. Therefore,
Sometimes, the term 'subject' is also used in the meaning of 'reference to the (single) %%entity|entity%% [etc.]' or '%%identifier|identifier%% for the (single) %%entity|entity%% [etc.]' rather than the (single) %%entity|entity%% itself. We discourage such practices, and suggest to use the term 'subject identifier' in such cases.
### Purpose
The term **subject** provides a generic way to link %%entities|entity%% that exist in the real (physical) world with %%knowledge|knowledge%% about them (e.g. characteristics, %%partial identities|partial-identity%% and such) that exists in the minds of various %parties%.
\ No newline at end of file
The term **subject** provides a generic way to link %%entities|entity%% that exist in the real (physical) world with %%knowledge|knowledge%% about them (e.g. characteristics, %%partial identities|partial-identity%% and such) that exists in the minds of various %%parties|party%%.
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......@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@ The purpose of the Transaction Data Discloser component is to state the (various
A **Transaction Data Discloser** is a component in the [eSSIF-Lab functional architecture](../essifLab-fw-func-arch) that is capable of stating (various, sometimes intermediary) results of transactions, by collecting data from the Business Data Stores, and creating a set of (related) statements/claims that can subsequently be issued to other %%Parties|party%%.
### Functionality
Typically, and at any point in time, %%parties|party%% are capable of expressing statements about entities that they know to exist. They could express statements about individuals, about themselves, the state of transactions, and so on. We will use the term '**%subject% (of a statement of a %%party|party%%)**' to refer to the entity that this %%party|party%% knows to exist, and about whom/which the statement has been made.
Typically, and at any point in time, %%parties|party%% are capable of expressing statements about entities that they know to exist. They could express statements about individuals, about themselves, the state of transactions, and so on. We will use the term '**%%subject|subject%% (of a statement of a %%party|party%%)**' to refer to the entity that this %%party|party%% knows to exist, and about whom/which the statement has been made.
We will use the term '**subject-id (of a statement of a %%party|party%%)**' to refer to the representation that this %%party|party%% has chosen to use for referring to the %%subject|subject%% in said statement. A subject-id must have the property of being an identifier within every administrative context that this %%party|party%% uses. It need not be humanly interpretable (and preferably is not).
......
......@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ module.exports = {
title: 'eSSIF-Lab',
tagline: 'eSSIF-Lab Framework',
url: 'https://essif-lab.github.io',
baseUrl: '/framework/',
baseUrl: process.env.STAGING && process.env.STAGING === 'true' ? '/framework/' : '/',
favicon: 'images/favicon.ico',
organizationName: 'essif-lab',
projectName: 'framework',
......
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