Commit f08f434b authored by RieksJ's avatar RieksJ
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update on 'objective'

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......@@ -13,11 +13,11 @@ date: 20210601
import useBaseUrl from '@docusaurus/useBaseUrl'
### Short Description
An **Objective** is something toward which a %%party|party%% (its %%owner|owner%%) directs effort (an aim, goal, or end of action). Typically, the realization of an objective can be observed in terms of results, e.g. products that have been produced, services that are being provided, a situation or state (e.g. happiness) that has been continued etc.
An **Objective** is something toward which a %%party|party%% (its %%owner|owner%%) directs effort (an aim, goal, or end of action). Typically, the realization of an objective can be observed in terms of results, e.g. products that have been produced, services that are being provided, a situation or state (e.g. happiness) that has been continued etc. A %%party|party%% that has an objective does not necessarily produce these results itself; it may also seek to realize them in order to use (consume) them. Production and consumption of results are the two different perspectives from which an objective can be perceived.
%%Ownership|ownership%% of the objective is implied, as it is part of that party's %%knowledge|knowledge%% (which is %%owned|owned%% by that party). Consequently, a single objective cannot be shared, as it would imply it had multiple %%owners|owner%%.
In order to communicate its objectives a %%party|party%% typically uses a text - a description of its intention, the aim, the goal, etc. In practice, people are known to confuse this description with the objective itself, which may cause them to think that two parties shared the same objective becasue these parties happen to use the same descriptive text. As mentioned before, that's not possible. However, it may be the case that two parties each have an objective that is similar to a very high degree. However, as each party can autonomously change the descriptive text, (the specification of) the results and any other attributes, it is obvious that what might seem to be the same objective is actually a set of (very) similar objectives.
In order to communicate its objectives, a %%party|party%% typically uses a text - a description of its intention, the aim, the goal, etc. In practice, people are known to confuse this description with the objective itself, which may cause them to think that two parties shared the same objective becasue these parties happen to use the same descriptive text. As mentioned before, that's not possible. However, it may be the case that two parties each have an objective that is similar to a very high degree. However, as each party can autonomously change the descriptive text, (the specification of) the results and any other attributes, it is obvious that what might seem to be the same objective is actually a set of (very) similar objectives.
We refer you to the %%Governance and Management pattern|pattern-governance-and-management%% for a description of how to think about objectives in contexts where there are multiple %%parties|party%%.
......@@ -27,8 +27,8 @@ The ability to distinguish between (non)objectives is relevant as objectives are
### Criterion
An **objective** is something
- that is %%owned|owned%% by a single %party;
- toward which its %%owner|owner%% directs its efforts: an aim, goal, or end of action;
- that can be realized, and this realization can be seen in terms as the coming into existence of results (e.g. products that have been produced, services that are being provided, a situation or state (e.g. happiness) that has been continued etc.);
- toward which its %%owner|owner%% directs its efforts: an aim, goal, or end of action - this action is related to the the owner producing the associated results (%%management|management%%) and/or consuming the results (%%governance|governance%%);
- that can be realized, and this realization can be seen in terms as the coming into existence of results (e.g. products, services, a situation or state (e.g. happiness));
- that may have a description (text, that represents and identifies the objective within the %%knowledge|knowledge%% of its %%owner|owner%%)
### Examples
......@@ -47,22 +47,16 @@ Here is a visual representation of the formalization of this concept, using the
*Figure 1. Parties and their objectives.*
The figure shows that every objective has a single %%owner|owner%%, which is the %%party|party%% that uses it to direct its efforts to.
The figure shows that every objective has a single %%owner|owner%%, which is the %%party|party%% that aims to realize the associated result(s).
This %%party|party%% may describe the objective, typically in terms of a text (or speech). This description, while meaningful to this party (as it is party of its %%knowledge|knowledge%%), may not be meaningful to, or be misinterpreted by other parties.
This %%party|party%% may describe the objective, typically in terms of a text (or speech), using its own wording. This description identifies the objective in the context/%%knowledge|knowledge%% of its %%owner|owner%%, implying that it may be misinterpreted by others. In particular (and specifically if the description is limited to a single phrase/sentence), %%parties|party%% may (or may not) be right in thinking they have a similar objective, or even erroneously think they share that objective in the sense that they both own the objective, which is not possible in this way of thinking.
Whether or not an objective is realised can be determined, also by other %%parties|party%%, by the results that must (continue to) exist. Such results can be products that have been produced, services that are (continuously) being provided, a situation or state (e.g. happiness) that has been continued etc. Results are typically auditable, and depending on the kind of result an auditor might establish their existence (and as the case may be: their (proper) design and/or operation).
Whether or not an objective is realised should be determinable, also by other %%parties|party%%, by the results that must (continue to) exist. Such results can be products that have been produced, services that are (continuously) being provided, a situation or state (e.g. happiness) that has been continued etc. Results are typically auditable, and depending on the kind of result an auditor might establish their existence (and as the case may be: their (proper) design and/or operation). But it is not necessarily the owner of the objective that has produced them, as we shall see.
A %%party|party%% can produce (the results of) an objective, which is equivalent as saying that the party %%manages|management%% the objective. It implies that the party organizes (and performs) the work that needs to be done to produce the result. There can at most be one party that manages an objective, so that if the objective is managed, responsibility is unambiguous.
An objective can be seen from two different perspectives. In the %%governance|governance%% perspective, a %%party|party%% ensures that the associated results become (or remain) available so that the %%party|party%% can actually use them. In this perspective, a %%party|party%% does not care who produces the results, nor how they are being produced. We say that the %%party|party%% %%governs|governance%% the objective, and will be consuming the associated results.
In this %%governance|governance%% perspective, a %%party|party%% will typically determine which (possibly other) %%party|party%% will be producing (and/or providing it with) these results. Also, it may think of a [fallback scenario](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Best_alternative_to_a_negotiated_agreement), e.g. select alternative producers it may contact in case the producer fails to deliver.
However, it can (try to) communicate with the producing %%party|party%%, and see if the properties of the results it requires (so that they are fit for the purposes for which they are going to be used) match the properties of the results that are provided.
The %%owner|owner%% of an objective is not necessarily its %%manager|management%%. It might outsource this work, e.g. order the product from another party, or delegate the work to another party.
A %%party|party%% can also use the results of an objective, in which case we say the party is the consumer of (the results of) that objective. The producer of an objective would do well to learn the criteria that make the results it produces fit for the purpose(s) that the consumer(s) need to use these results for. If there is a single consumer that happens to be the producer, that would be simple. If not, it would be a topic on the discussion agenda of both parties.
An objective can also be %%governed|governance%%, which means that it specifies the results, and determines which %%party|party%% it wants to produce these results. It also implies that the owner will be using the results, i.e. it is then also a consumer. After all, there is no point in setting an objective that one doesn't produce the results of, and also doesn't use these results for one or another purpose. So the %%owner|owner%% of an objective fulfills the producer and/or the consumer role for this objective, meaning that it will produce and/or consume the associated results.
As the producer, a party can add attributes to the objective that help it to produce the results. One may think of performance indicators (e.g. budgets and other resources, timelines, etc.), specifications of these results, attributes related to the quality, security, sustainance etc. of the results, and so on. This helps to keep tabs on the production, instruct the %%agents|agent%% it uses for doing the actual production, and communicate with consuming parties.
As a consumer, a party can add attributes to the objective that help it consume the results. Typically, this may include a list of purpose(s) and/or activities in which it wants/needs to use the results, and characteristics results must have (e.g. what one can actully do with them). This helps to make sure the results are available when they are actually needed, to inform the %%agents|agent%% of the consumer about this, and communicate with the producing party, specifically about the characteristics of the results that are required to make them fit for (the) purpose (for which the consumer wants to use them).
In the %%management|management%% perspective, a %%party|party%% ensures that the associated results become (or remain) available by producing them (or obtaining them in some other way), and making them available to (possibly) other %%parties|party%% that will be using them. This means planning (of budgets and other resources, timelines, etc.), specifying the results that it will be producing, organizing (the efficiency of) the actual production, instructing its %%agents|agent%% that do the actual production, etc. Managing these results also includes marketing thereof, trying to find %%parties|party%% that will actually want to use them. And it can communicate with (prospective) consumers, and see if the properties of the results it will be producing match the properties required by its customers.
For more information, e.g. about how different %%parties|party%% interact in their roles of producer and consumer, we refer you to the %%Governance and Management pattern|pattern-governance-and-management%%.
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