Commit f782f562 authored by Rieks Joosten's avatar Rieks Joosten
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terminology revision - tryout of new syntax

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import Term from '../src/components/Term'
---
id: concept-concept
title: Concept
---
## Scope
eSSIF-Lab
## One-line Summary
<!--A single sentence that describe the {{concept}} to a layperson with reaonable accuracy. This line may be used to explain `Concept` in a glossary, or as a popover text when it is referred to in other documentation.-->
## Short Description
<!--in 1-3 sentences that describe the {{concept}} to a layperson with reaonable accuracy.-->
A Concept tries to capture the idea behind a classification of entities[^1], allowing us to reason about everything in the class as if it were one thing. For example, the ideas ([mental representations](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_representation)) you have when processing the sentences "I can drink beer from a beer glass' and 'I can drink beer from a coffee mug' shows that the concepts that are behind 'beer glass' and 'coffee mug' differ.
## Purpose
<!--Describe why the {{concept}} is needed. What purposes does it serve? What can you do with it that you cannot do (as well) without it? What objectives does it help realize? Why is this {{concept}} relevant within its {{scope}} of definition?-->
Working together is easier when you and your peers share the same ideas. We need a way to test and ensure, that you and your peers _actually_ have the same understanding, for the purpose of making cooperation easier. Doing so is expected to not only reduce the number of terminological discussions, but also improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the remaining discussions.
## Criteria
<!--How is this {{concept}} different from related ideas? What are essential characteristics that must be true? This is where you specify the [intensional definition](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extensional_and_intensional_definitions) of the {{concept}}, i.e. the necessary and sufficient conditions for when the term should be used. This makes that the {{concept}} becomes crystal clear. In the case of nouns, this is equivalent to specifying the properties that an object needs to have in order to be counted as a referent of the term.-->
A (description/specification of a) Concept MUST be [intensionally defined](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extensional_and_intensional_definitions), i.e. associated with a criterion that can be used to determine whether or not someone or something qualifies as (an instance of) that Concept, and that has the property that it has been shown that the vast majority of contributors and other users apply it in the same manner in different situations (i.e. they arrive at the same conclusion as to whether or not someone or something qualifies under that criterion in any given situation).
## Examples
<!--Provide a few sentences in which you give examples that obviously qualify as instances of NewTerm, and that do NOT obviously qualify. Also, provide examples that are not (so) obvious, but help users to better understand its intension.-->
## Related Concepts
<!--Link to any {{concepts|concept}} that are similar but distinct, with a note about the relationship.-->
* {{Term}} is a label that is used in some context to refer to a {{Concept}}[^2], the set of entities that satisfy the concept's criteria, or an arbitrary element of that set. Different contexts may use different terms to refer to a single concept. In a single context, a single term should be used to refer to an individual concept.
* Concept ... ("Scope") is related in several ways. First, there is (precisely, or at most one) Scope that governs the definition/specification of the Concept. Second, there may be (any number of) Scopes that use the Concept, i.e. within which Terms are defined that refer to the Concept
* Concept ... ("Conceptual Model") is a collection of concepts, relations between such concepts, and constraint rules that (elements of) such concepts and relations must satisfy. Such [models](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conceptual_model) are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.
## Domains
<!--In which general knowledge ecosystems or mental model families does this {{concept}} play a role?-->
* eSSIF-Lab
* ToIP
* Sovrin
* DIF
* NIST
* ...
## Tags
<!--Add hash tags here that allow us to group concepts in useful ways.-->
* Terminology
## Use-cases
<!--This (optional) section specifies an (optional) introductory paragraph, and a level-3 (i.e. `###`) subsection for every use case it describes. Every such use-case SHOULD
- describe the situation/context of the use-case;
- show how to apply `NewTerm` to/in that situation;
- shows the relevance of having `NewTerm` for the use-case as opposed to not having it.-->
## Notes
<!--This (optional) section is the place to put anything for which there is no other good place to put it.-->
There is an important [distinction](https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concept) between concepts and the (multitude of) terms (names, labels) that we need to be able to talk and reason (argue) about them. Please consider that
* different terms are used in different contexts for the same concept
* in different contexts, a single term may refer to different concepts
* to resolve terminological disputes, which usually are about the 'correct' meaning of a term, try to establish the criteria that the different participants use for the concept behind the term. That helps participants understand each others (different) positions, and provides a better basis for resolving the conflict.
---
## Footnotes
<!--This (optional) section contains any footnotes that may have been specified in the text above.-->
[^1]: WikiPedia has a concise [explanation of concepts](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concept). We use the term 'concept' as a [mental representation](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_representation).
[^2]: For the difference between 'Concept' and 'Term', see https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concept.
\ No newline at end of file
import Term from '../src/components/Term'
---
id: concept-glossary
title: Concept: Glossary
---
## Scope
eSSIF-Lab Terminology
## Summary
in 1-3 sentences the concept to a layperson with reaonable accuracy
## Scope of definition
Identify a (single) scope within which the concept is to be defined. The scope you identify SHOULD have a Scope Description, or you should make one. `eSSIF-Lab` is the 'universal' scope, `Terminology` is the scope for discussions and topics related to the creation of glossaries, concept-definitions, etc.
* (scope identifier)
## Criterion
<!--This (required) section specifies the [intensional definition](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extensional_and_intensional_definitions#Intensional_definition) definition of `Glossary`, which is a specification of the necessary and sufficient conditions for when Glossary should be used. In other words: you specify a criterion that readers can use to determine whether or not something is an instance of Glossary.-->
an alphabetical list of words with (short) explanations, that exists for the purpose of helping people to get a first understanding of the meaning of these words in at least one specific context.
## Examples
<!--This (optional) section contains examples, both of what satisfies the definition (and hence qualifies as an instance of Glossary), ans what does not. If you can think of examples for which the criterion may not (always) work, then describe them, too, and inform the reader why this hasn't affected the definition (yet) - e.g. because such cases are irrelevant to the scope within which the term is defined.-->
Examples include the [eSSIF-Lab Glossary](essif-lab-glossary), the [Sovrin Glossary](https://sovrin.org/library/glossary/), the [Glossary of Internet Terms](https://www.internetsociety.org/internet/glossary-internet-terms/), the glossary of the [NIST Computer Security Resource Center](https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary), and glossaries for Legal Terms, e.g. of the [US](https://www.uscourts.gov/glossary), [Singapore](https://www.supremecourt.gov.sg/services/self-help-services/glossary-of-terms), the [UK](https://www.copfs.gov.uk/involved-in-a-case/glossary-of-legal-terms).
<!--## Summary
This (optional) section summarizes the backgrounds of the chosen definition/criterion. It is the TL;DR version of the `Description` section. Apart from serving its own purposes, this section may serve the purposes that a `Description` section would have served if it hadn't been omitted.-->
<!--## Description
This (optional) section explains the backgrounds of the chosen definition/criterion. It may contain links to media (diagrams, audio, video). It SHOULD contain links to all patterns that use this concept.-->
<!--## Related Concepts from other terminologies
This (optional) section lists words/phrases that are encountered in other contexts that have the same or a sufficiently similar meaning as Glossary. In this section you may point out the (subtle) differences between Glossary and this related terminology. This helps readers better/deeper understand Glossary, and how it may be used to relate to existing texts. Ideally, such references are accompanied with links to (preferredly authoritative) sources.-->
- Dictionary - this is more extensive; it may include e.g. information on pronunciation, etymology, usage, example sentences,synonyms, etc. See [askdifference.com](https://www.askdifference.com/dictionary-vs-glossary/)
- Vocabulary - this is a body of words used in a particular language or field of expertise. A Glossary can (alphabetically) list such words.
<!--## Use-cases
This (optional) section specifies an (optional) introductory paragraph, and a level-3 (i.e. `###`) subsection for every use case it describes. Every such use-case SHOULD
- describe the situation/context of the use-case;
- show how to apply `Glossary` to/in that situation;
- shows the relevance of having `Glossary` for the use-case as opposed to not having it.-->
<!--## Notes
This (optional) section is the place to put anything for which there is no other good place to put it.-->
The [eSSIF-Lab Glossary](essif-lab-glossary) contains the words that are defined within the scope of the [eSSIF-Lab framework](introduction).
<!--
---
## Footnotes
This (optional) section contains any footnotes that may have been specified in the text above.-->
## Meta
<!--This (required) section specifies attributes that are needed for generating/adapting other documents, such as glossaries, concept-files, etc.-->
DefScope = eSSIF-Lab <!--this is a required line, that specifies an identifier for the scope into which the term is being defined.-->
<!--Popuptext = This (optional) text specifies what is shown whenever a person hovers over a reference to this term.-->
import Term from '../src/components/Term'
---
id: concept-objective
title: Concept: Objective
---
## Scope
eSSIF-Lab
## Criterion:
Something toward which effort is directed: an aim, goal, or end of action ([Merriam-Webster](https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/objective))
## Examples:
Anything that, according to a {{Party}} c.q. its way of thinking, is important to be realized, qualifies as an Objective (and identifies its owner as that {{Party}})
### Xxx:
The {{Knowledge}}/judgements of a {{Party}} are what makes something an {{Objectiv}}e (owned by that {{Party}}).
import Term from '../src/components/Term'
---
id: concept-party
title: Party
---
## Scope
eSSIF-Lab
## Criterion:
Entity that has knowledge about what exists, ways to reason[^1] with that knowledge, and ways for making decisions in a Self-Sovereign[^2] fashion.
## Examples:
People obviously qualify. Enterprises, governments, and other organizations also qualify as they can be seen as having their own knowledge (e.g. in their registrations, databases etc.), ways to reason with that knowledge (business rules, exercised by their employees or IT systems), and making decision.
Stones, pictures, ideas, etc. do not qualify. Also, electronic components do not qualify[^3].
### xxx:
---
[^1]: Reasoning means: inferring conclusions from data, regardless of the kind of logic that is being used, or whether the reasoning is coherent, or consistent.
[^2]: This means that the party can do this all by itself. For humans, the rights for this are laid down e.g. in the [ECHR](https://www.echr.coe.int "European Convention of Human Rights") ([ECHR articles 9-11](https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf))
[^3]: While the case can be made that (some) electronic components can reason, they do not do so in a self-sovereign fashion as intended by this definition. We do not want to discuss AI-equipment here.
\ No newline at end of file
import Term from '../src/components/Term'
---
id: concept-NewConcept
title: NewConcept
---
<!--Replace 'NewConcept' with the name for the concept you want to define. Then, provide contents for the sections as you wish. You MUST provide contents for the sections 'Scope of definition', 'Short Description' and 'Criteria'-->
## Scope
eSSIF-Lab
## One-line Summary
<!--A single sentence that describe the {{concept}} to a layperson with reaonable accuracy. This line may be used to explain `Concept` in a glossary, or as a popover text when it is referred to in other documentation.-->
## Short Description
<!--in 1-3 sentences that describe the {{concept}} to a layperson with reaonable accuracy.-->
## Purpose
<!--Describe why the {{concept}} is needed. What purposes does it serve? What can you do with it that you cannot do (as well) without it? What objectives does it help realize? Why is this {{concept}} relevant within its {{scope}} of definition?-->
## Criteria
<!--How is this {{concept}} different from related ideas? What are essential characteristics that must be true? This is where you specify the [intensional definition](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extensional_and_intensional_definitions) of the {{concept}}, i.e. the necessary and sufficient conditions for when the term should be used. This makes that the {{concept}} becomes crystal clear. In the case of nouns, this is equivalent to specifying the properties that an object needs to have in order to be counted as a referent of the term.-->
## Examples
<!--Provide a few sentences in which you give examples that obviously qualify as instances of NewTerm, and that do NOT obviously qualify. Also, provide examples that are not (so) obvious, but help users to better understand its intension.-->
## Related Concepts
<!--Link to any {{concepts|concept}} that are similar but distinct, with a note about the relationship.-->
## Domains
<!--In which general knowledge ecosystems or mental model families does this {{concept}} play a role?-->
## Tags
<!--Add hash tags here that allow us to group concepts in useful ways.-->
## Use-cases
<!--This (optional) section specifies an (optional) introductory paragraph, and a level-3 (i.e. `###`) subsection for every use case it describes. Every such use-case SHOULD
- describe the situation/context of the use-case;
- show how to apply `NewTerm` to/in that situation;
- shows the relevance of having `NewTerm` for the use-case as opposed to not having it.-->
## Notes
<!--This (optional) section is the place to put anything for which there is no other good place to put it.-->
---
## Footnotes
<!--This (optional) section contains any footnotes that may have been specified in the text above.-->
\ No newline at end of file
import Term from '../src/components/Term'
---
id: concept-NewConcept
title: NewConcept
---
<!--Replace 'NewConcept' with the name for the concept you want to define. Then, provide contents for the sections as you wish. You MUST provide contents for the sections 'Scope of definition', 'Short Description' and 'Criteria'-->
## Scope of definition
Identify the (single) {{scope}} within which 'NewConcept' is used as the {{term}} to refer to the {{concept}} that this document defines. We use:
- "eSSIF-Lab" to identify the {{scope}} for the basic terminology used in the [eSSIF-Lab framework](https://essif-lab.pages.grnet.gr/framework).
- "eSSIF-Lab Terminology" as the {{scope}} for discussions and topics related to the creation of glossaries, concept-definitions, etc.
You may refer to any scope for which a {{scope-file}} exists.
## One-line Summary
A single sentence that describe the {{concept}} to a layperson with reaonable accuracy. This line may be used to explain `Concept` in a glossary, or as a popover text when it is referred to in other documentation.
For example: "A warm-blooded animal, often having fur or hair, that produces milk to feed its young."
## Short Description
in 1-3 sentences that describe the {{concept}} to a layperson with reaonable accuracy.
For example, the concept of a "mammal" in biology might be described as: "A warm-blooded animal, often having fur or hair, that produces milk to feed its young. Examples include rats, whales, and bats." A diagram could be included, if appropriate. The goal here is not perfect clarity; that's the focus of the 'Criteria' section.
## Purpose
Describe why the {{concept}} is needed. What purposes does it serve? What can you do with it that you cannot do (as well) without it? What objectives does it help realize? Why is this {{concept}} relevant within its {{scope}} of definition?
## Criteria
How is this {{concept}} different from related ideas? What are essential characteristics that must be true? This is where you specify the [intensional definition](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extensional_and_intensional_definitions) of the {{concept}}, i.e. the necessary and sufficient conditions for when the term should be used. This makes that the {{concept}} becomes crystal clear. In the case of nouns, this is equivalent to specifying the properties that an object needs to have in order to be counted as a referent of the term.
a vertibrate that has mammary glands, a neocortex in the brain and 3 middle ear bones.
## Examples
Provide a few sentences in which you give examples that obviously qualify as instances of NewTerm, and that do NOT obviously qualify. Also, provide examples that are not (so) obvious, but help users to better understand its intension.
Primates (humans, monkeys), rodents (mice, rats), bats, and others qualify. Birds and reptiles do not (they lack mammary glands). [Platypus](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platypus)[^1] is also a mammal, even though it lays eggs.
## Related Concepts
Link to any {{concepts|concept}} that are similar but distinct, with a note about the relationship. For example:
* {{offspring (of a mammal)|offspring}} is the set of {{mammals|mammal}} that are born from that mammal.
* {{mate (of a mammal)|mate}} is any {{mammal}} of the same species with which the {{mammal}} has created {{ofspring}}.
## Domains
In which general knowledge ecosystems or mental model families does this {{concept}} play a role? For example:
* Biology
## Tags
Add hash tags here that allow us to group concepts in useful ways.
## Use-cases
This (optional) section specifies an (optional) introductory paragraph, and a level-3 (i.e. `###`) subsection for every use case it describes. Every such use-case SHOULD
- describe the situation/context of the use-case;
- show how to apply `NewTerm` to/in that situation;
- shows the relevance of having `NewTerm` for the use-case as opposed to not having it.
## Notes
This (optional) section is the place to put anything for which there is no other good place to put it.
---
## Footnotes
This (optional) section contains any footnotes that may have been specified in the text above.
[^1]: See [WikiPedia](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platypus)
import Term from '../src/components/Term'
---
id: essif-lab-glossary
title: eSSIF-Lab Glossary
---
<!--A {{glossary}} is a list of {{terms|term}} with (short) explanations, usually aimed to help people understand texts around a certain (set of) topic(s) in some context(s).-->
## Purpose
<!--State the purpose(s) that this glossary aims to fulfill, in such a way that readers can easily determine whether or not it is useful for them to use it.-->
This glossary lists the basic concepts that are needed by the various stakeholders within the eSSIF-Lab project, ranging from governance, business, process, technology etc. The idea is that it defines at least the set of concepts that are often used in these varied domains, allowing a reader with a specific background to learn how the concept is used from other (valid) perspectives that may be alien to him/her.
## Sources
<!--Here, the sources should be identified from which the glossary entries (and their descriptions) are to be collected-->
### Scopes
<!--Specify the {{scope-files|scope-file}} that are to serve as a source for this glossary-->
* eSSIF-Lab
### Terms
<!--Specify the {{term-files|term-file}} that are to serve as a source for this glossary. If a term is defined in a scope as well as in a {{term-file}}, the latter takes precedence.-->
### Patterns
<!--Specify the {{pattern-files|pattern-file}} that are to serve as a source for this glossary. If a term is defined in a scope or as a term as well as in a {{pattern-file}}, the latter takes precedence.-->
### Concepts
<!--Specify the {{concept-files|concept-file}} that are to serve as a source for this glossary. If a term is defined in a scope, or as a term, or in a pattern as well as in a {{concept-file}}, the latter takes precedence.-->
<!--
---
## Footnotes
This (optional) section contains any footnotes that may have been specified in the text above.-->
import Term from '../src/components/Term'
---
id: new-scope-glossary
title: NewScope Glossary
---
<!--A {{glossary}} is a list of {{terms|term}} with (short) explanations, usually aimed to help people understand texts around a certain (set of) topic(s) in some context(s).-->
## Purpose
<!--State the purpose(s) that this glossary aims to fulfill, in such a way that readers can easily determine whether or not it is useful for them to use it.-->
## Sources
<!--Here, the sources should be identified from which the glossary entries (and their descriptions) are to be collected-->
### Scopes
<!--Specify the {{scope-files|scope-file}} that are to serve as a source for this glossary-->
### Terms
<!--Specify the {{term-files|term-file}} that are to serve as a source for this glossary. If a term is defined in a scope as well as in a {{term-file}}, the latter takes precedence.-->
### Patterns
<!--Specify the {{pattern-files|pattern-file}} that are to serve as a source for this glossary. If a term is defined in a scope or as a term as well as in a {{pattern-file}}, the latter takes precedence.-->
### Concepts
<!--Specify the {{concept-files|concept-file}} that are to serve as a source for this glossary. If a term is defined in a scope, or as a term, or in a pattern as well as in a {{concept-file}}, the latter takes precedence.-->
<!--
---
## Footnotes
This (optional) section contains any footnotes that may have been specified in the text above.-->
import Term from '../src/components/Term'
---
id: pattern-concepts-terminology
title: Pattern: Concepts-Terminology
---
This pattern captures the foundational concepts and relations that we need for creating, maintaining and using vocabularies (terminologies) that groups of people can use for the specific purposes they pursue. Alternatively, we need these concepts to allow people to use 'decentralized vocabularies' that {{parties|party}} may create, maintain and use in a self-sovereign fashion - which means that each of them decides for itself what terms to use in what meaning, yet be able to communicate with other such {{parties|party}} in such a way that a correct understanding of what the other means, can more or less be guaranteed.
## Introduction
TL;DR: .
A concept is an idea that is applied to all objects in a group. It is the way people see and understand something. The name used to identify a concept (the concept's label) is a "term". For example, the word "Dog" is the term to identify the concept of what a dog is. Everything that a person knows about a dog is the concept of the term dog.
Different terms can be used to identify the same concept. Car and Automobile are synonyms for the same concept. Different languages have different terms for the same concept. This is what makes translation possible. The terms may be different in each language, but the concept is the same. The concept of jumping is the same to a person from England and a person from Italy, but one person uses the term "Jump" to mean the concept and the other person uses "Salto".
---
Footnotes:
[^1]:
\ No newline at end of file
import Term from '../src/components/Term'
---
id: pattern-Party-action
title: Pattern: Party-Action
---
This pattern captures the foundational concepts and relations that we need for thinking about people (human beings), organizations, and how they interact with one another in a decentralized, self-sovereign way - which means that each of them decides for itself whether or not to interact with others, how to conduct such interactions, etc., thereby only taking external influences into account if they want, or have some need to do so.
## Introduction
TL;DR: This pattern models that {{Parties:Party}} (humans, organizations) perform {{Actions:Action}} for the purpose of realizing their {{Objectives:Objective}}. {{Parties:Party}} are not considered to actually execute such {{Actions:Action}}; they have (human and non-human) {{Actors:Actor}} that work for them, execute such {{Actions:Action}}, using the {{Party}}’s {{Knowledge}} as the (authoritative) guidance for executing the {{Actions:Action}} (as well as any other relevant {{Knowledge}} they can access).
<Image src=pattern-Party-action.png />
The essential characteristic of {{Parties:Party}} is their 1-1 link with {{Knowledge}}, which they continually update and use e.g. for reasoning, decision making, and determining e.g. what to do, when, and with whom. {{Knowledge}} not only includes (observable) facts, but also opinions, e.g. regarding the {{Entities:Entity}} it knows to exist, relations between them, and rules (constraints, [logic](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logic)[^1]) that can be used to classify and reasoning about them, and for making decisions.
Perhaps the most important idea in this pattern is that our {{Party}} concept is not considered to (be able to) act, and they need {{{{Actors:Actor}}:Actor}} (i.e. {{Entities:Entity}} that _can_ act) to act on their behalf and thus make them perform. This does, however, not preclude having {{Entities:Entity}} that are both {{Party}} and {{Actor}} - e.g. humans - and that such {{Entities:Entity}} can act on their ‘own’ behalf. And we can continue to use the commonly used form of speech in which a {{Party}} performs some {{Action}}, by realizing that this means that there is (at least) one {{Actor}} that is actually executing that {{Action}}.
In this pattern, {{Knowledge}} takes center stage. {{Knowledge}} contains {{Objectives:Objective}} to be realized and managed. This not only triggers all sorts of {{Actions:Action}} to be performed, but also guides their execution in terms of when an {{Action}} should start, when it terminates, which {{Actors:Actor}} qualify for executing it, etc. Everything that is specific for a {{Party}} is reflected in its {{Knowledge}}.
This works well for human beings, which are both a {{Party}} and an {{Actor}}. So a human being can act, implying itself as an {{Actor}}, and using its personal {{Knowledge}} as guidance. The model also works when a human being (as a {{Party}}) may hire someone else (as an {{Actor}}), e.g. to fill in his tax return form. This other is guided by the {{Knowledge}} of the human being that hired him, and uses its own {{Knowledge}} for the details of filling in the tax form.
It also works well for organizations, which are typically companies, enterprises, governments or parts thereof, i.e. groups of human beings and possibly other {{Actors:Actor}} that, as a group, fit the criteria for being a {{Party}}. This group of {{Actors:Actor}} would typically work to realize the organization’s {{Objectives:Objective}}, being guided by the organization’s {{Knowledge}} (registrations, policies, etc.). Like human beings, an organization may (have an appropriate {{Actor}}) decide to hire or fire {{Actors:Actor}} for longer or shorter periods.
{{Parties:Party}} set {{Objectives:Objective}} that they seek to achieve, the most basic of which perhaps is its mission, or its ‘raison d'être’, to the realization of which all of its {{Actions:Action}} are (ultimately) aimed. Every {{Objective}} is owned by a single {{Party}} (we do not consider ‘shared objectives’[^2]).
---
Footnotes:
[^1]: I.e. “logic is the analysis and appraisal of arguments (Gensler, Harry J. (2017) [2002]. "Chapter 1: Introduction". Introduction to logic (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge. p. 1. [doi:10.4324/9781315693361](https://doi.org/10.4324%2F9781315693361). [ISBN 9781138910591](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/9781138910591). OCLC [957680480](https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/957680480).)
[^2]: The Networked Risk Management (NRM) pattern deals with the setting and realizing of {{Objectives:Objective}}, the associated risk management etc., and explains the reasoning for not having shared {{Objectives:Objective}}.
\ No newline at end of file
import Term from '../src/components/Term'
---
id: pattern-<!--pattern-name-->
title: Concept: <!--Patternname-->
---
<!--This template is currently being developed. Please create issues/pull requests to contribute-->
## Purpose
<!--Concisely describe what can you do with the pattern that is (at least) harder if you didn't have it.-->
## Introduction
<!--Gently introduce the pattern, by referring to real-world situations and using colloquial terms, so that when someone has read the text, (s)he knows what it is about, and is ready to delve into the specifics of the pattern-->
## Notations
<!--This (optional) section specifies the notations that are used, or refers to such a specification.-->
## <!-- any number of other sections, as is fit for describing the pattern -->
<!--text as appropriate for such a section -->
## Footnotes
<!--This (optional) section contains any footnotes that may have been specified in the text above.-->
## Meta
<!--This (optional) section specifies attributes that are needed for generating/adapting other documents, such as glossaries, concept-files, etc.-->
DefScope = eSSIF-Lab <!--this is an identifier for the scope into which the term is being defined.-->
Popuptext = <!--This (optional) text specifies what is shown whenever a person hovers over a reference to this term.-->
import Term from '../src/components/Term'
---
id: scope-essif-lab
title: Scope: eSSIF-Lab
---
## Governance
<!--This section identifies the {{organizational body|Jurisdiction}} that governs the {{scope}}. Optionally, a reference to the governance framework/procedures may be made.-->
The [eSSIF-Lab project](https://essif-lab.eu/) governs the terminology within this scope, according to the procedures mentioned in the [eSSIF-Lab Framework](https://essif-lab.pages.grnet.gr/framework/docs/terminology/).
## Objectives/Issues
<!--State the purpose for having the scope in terms of objectives that are aimed for and/or issues that are to be addressed.-->
Contributors to and users of eSSIF-Lab come from various backgrounds. Their culture may not be Western. English may not be their native tongue. They may be experts in non-technological topics. Working with one another presumes a setting where participants have some level of shared understanding. Often, sharing one's understanding at a superficial level suffices. Other situations require that underlying concepts are shared in a more in-depth fashion. It's like cars: people buying, selling, or driving cars do not need in-depth shared knowledge about cars, whereas (maintenance or construction) engineers or liability lawyers need to share a deeper knowledge of how cars do (or do not) work.
We expect to see situations of "language confusion", i.e. in which people use words or phrases, the intension (not: intention) of which differs from the interpretation of some listeners/readers. Sometimes a casual glance at a dictionary or glossary is the solution. In other cases, deeper understanding matters, e.g. in when drafting specifications or contracts. Then we need more than a set of definitions.
The Concepts and Terminology part of eSSIF-Lab aims helps eSSIF-Lab community participants understand one another at whatever level of precision they need.
## Scope identifier
<!--State a short text or abbreviation that can be used within eSSIF-Lab (or beyond) to refer to the scope. Scope identifiers/labels should be useable as prefix for terms, thus providing a mechanism to refer to terms defined in other scopes-->
eSSIF-Lab
## Scope URI
<!--Optionally specify the URI by which this scope may be identified-->
## Notes
<!--Anything els that's worth mentioning.-->
## Tags
<!--Add hash tags here that allow us to group concepts in useful ways.-->
<!--
---
## Footnotes
This (optional) section contains any footnotes that may have been specified in the text above.-->
import Term from '../src/components/Term'
---
id: NewScope-scope
title: Scope: NewScope
---
<!--A {{scope}} is something within which {{concepts|concept}} can be associated with {{terms|term}}, thereby creating a vocabulary that can be used to meaningfully express ideas, arguments, etc.-->
## Governance
<!--This section identifies the {{organizational body|Jurisdiction}} that governs the {{scope}}. Optionally, a reference to the governance framework/procedures may be made.-->
## Objectives/Issues
<!--State the purpose for having the scope in terms of objectives that are aimed for and/or issues that are to be addressed.-->
## Scope identifier
<!--State a short text or abbreviation that can be used within eSSIF-Lab (or beyond) to refer to the scope. Scope identifiers/labels should be useable as prefix for terms, thus providing a mechanism to refer to terms defined in other scopes-->
## Scope URI
<!--Optionally specify the URI by which this scope may be identified-->
## Notes
<!--Anything els that's worth mentioning.-->
## Tags
<!--Add hash tags here that allow us to group concepts in useful ways.-->
<!--
---
## Footnotes
This (optional) section contains any footnotes that may have been specified in the text above.-->
---
id: terminology
title: eSSIF-Lab Concepts and Terminology
---
:::info **UNDER CONSTRUCTION**
This initial version of the eSSIF-Lab Terminology is currently under construction.
:::
The purpose of the eSSIF-Lab Terminology is to provide mental models that all of its stakeholders interpret in sufficiently the same way, so as to be able to talk, think and discuss about what it is we try to achieve and ways to achieve this.
## Introduction
Contributors to and users of eSSIF-Lab come from various backgrounds. Their culture may not be Western. English may not be their native tongue. They may be experts in non-technological topics. Working with one another presumes a setting where participants have some level of shared understanding. Often, sharing one's understanding at a superficial level suffices. Other situations require that underlying concepts are shared in a more in-depth fashion. It's like cars: people buying, selling, or driving cars do not need in-depth shared knowledge about cars, whereas (maintenance or construction) engineers or liability lawyers need to share a deeper knowledge of how cars do (or do not) work.
We expect to see situations of "language confusion", i.e. in which people use words or phrases, the intension (not: intention) of which differs from the interpretation of some listeners/readers. Sometimes a casual glance at a dictionary or glossary is the solution. In other cases, deeper understanding matters, e.g. in when drafting specifications or contracts. Then [we need more than a set of definitions](https://www.sfu.ca/~swartz/definitions.htm).
The Concepts and Terminology part of eSSIF-Lab aims helps eSSIF-Lab community participants understand one another at whatever level of precision they need.
## Glossaries
The traditional tool for fostering common understanding is using glossaries, i.e. alphabetical lists of words relating to a specific subject, text, or dialect, with explanations; a brief dictionary ([OED](https://www.lexico.com/definition/glossary)). Examples include the [Sovrin Glossary](https://sovrin.org/library/glossary/) and the [NIST Glossary](https://csrc.nist.gov/glossary). Other initiatives attempt to provide more background, e.g. the [terminology for talking about privacy by data minimization](https://dud.inf.tu-dresden.de/literatur/Anon_Terminology_v0.34.pdf) by Pfitzmann and Hansen (2010), or the [EBSI Terminology (login required)](https://ec.europa.eu/cefdigital/wiki/display/EBP/EBSI+Terminology).
The eSSIF-Lab project will also develop a [Glossary](essif-lab-glossary).
However, since the use of such glossaries is limited to short explanations, we will also provide (a) mental model(s) that provide a more in-depth explanation of the concepts that underly the words listed in the [eSSIF-Lab Glossary](essif-lab-glossary).
## Mental Models
A Mental Model, or Conceptual Model, is a set of of concepts (i.e. entity classes), relations between such concepts (i.e. sets of pairs of members of classes that a relation connects), and rules/constraints expressed in terms of these relations and concepts.
The first purpose of a Mental Model is to help us think and reason about a certain topic or issue.
One signal that indicates the need of such a model is when we’re running circles in our thoughts, and we have this feeling of not understanding, of the topic being (too) complex. Often, we are thinking in terms of concepts that are not fit for the objectives we pursue.
So a mental model requires careful construction, that allows the choices for its elements to be validated against many use-cases. Such validation instills trust that our model elements (concepts, relations, rules) are well-chosen. It also provides us with the experience (usually after some time) that it has made our thinking easier, and we are better equipped to resolve issues.
The careful construction is comparable to a quest: it takes time, multiple versions, and careful reflection. And it needs continuous validation of its parts, by throwing use-cases at it and verifying that the model can describe such cases, and do some reasoning with them.
This careful construction must ensure that the mental model gets different properties. For starters, the model must be able to reason in (all) static situations, where things do not change, and the so-called ‘invariant’ rules/constraints must hold. Also, the model must be able to cope with time-dependencies and changes, for which other kinds of rules apply.
In the end, the mental model needs to be expressed in several, different ways, depending on whom we want to convey the ideas behind it to. Business people generally need simple models that allow them to (roughly) grasp its gist. Software architects need models with precise definitions that allow them to use its elements in (formal) reasonings. Software engineers (programmers) need all the details that allow them to create applications and databases that work according to the model’s intent. So the level of detail that an expression of the model provides, makes it useful or useless to different audiences.
## Terminology and Definitions
We attempt to create definitions that are both acceptable for business people yet are precise enough to serve as a basis for formal reasoning. We do this by using [intensional definitions](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extensional_and_intensional_definitions), i.e. by defining criteria that specify the necessary and sufficient conditions for when a term should be used. We have tried to craft these definitions such that
- readers are likely to make the same judgements when using them, and
- these distinctions are relevant for our purposes. That’s the important stuff.
The actual texts we choose as the name for a concept is of secondary importance; if in a particular context other names are more suitable, you can rename them there without loss of meaning or consistency.
Together with these criteria, we provide a limited set of examples to help the reader to visualize the defined concepts, and to point out possibly unexpected consequences of the criteria. Also, we may motivate the need for having a concept by showing its relevance for the model.
Here are some examples:
### Entity
**someone or something that is known/thought of**.
Basically, anything you (or anyone else) can think of qualifies. That includes people, organizations, documents, data, ideas, etc. Things that you do not know that exist, but others do, also qualify.
Since there is nothing that you, or someone else, can come up with that does not satisfy the criterion, everything qualifies as an Entity. We need the term as a basis for creating intensional definitions.
:::info
**The following definitions will be moved to a separate eSSIF-Lab Terminology section**
:::
### Definition
**Entity that comprises at a minimum**:
- **a non-empty set of scopes in each of which specific objectives are being pursued;**
- **a criterion that specifies the necessary and sufficient conditions for being an instance of a named class;**
- **a set of arguments and/or use-cases (that SHOULD not be empty), and that show the relevance of making this distinction within the scope (and for its objectives);**
- **a name that is created and used within the scope that created the definition, for the purpose of referring to the class, or using it as a placeholder for its instances.**
**For the purposes of this document, the scope of every Definition is this Document (with its objectives that have been specified above).**
Note that this definition satisfies itself. Also note that a definition may be used in multiple scopes, where a scope that wants to use the definition that has been defined in another scope, may replace that name with one of its own choosing. This way the meaning expressed by the definition remains preserved.
### Concept
**A named set of entities that satisfy a criterion that specifies the necessary and sufficient conditions for being a member of that set**
### Relation
**A named set of entity-pairs (L,R), and a criterion C(SRC,TGT), where:**
- **SRC and TGT are Concepts;**
- **L is an element of SRC and R is an element of TGT;**
- **the name of the relation combined with SRC and TGT identifies the set;**
- **C(L,R) is satisfied.**
For example, a relation could be defined by:
- name=‘is owner of’
- SRC=’Party’ and TGT=’Entity’ and
- C(SRC,TGT)=‘SRC is the owner of TGT’